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  • Ten Technical Tips
    10个马林巴演奏小技巧

    By Dr. Splatbar*
    *Dr. Splatbar plays concerts, records albums, designs marimbas and mallets and has authored a book on four mallet playing, Method of Movement, all under the pseudonym Leigh Howard Stevens.

    你可能不知道Dr Splatbar,但是你一定听过他的另一个名字——雷?哈罗德?史蒂文斯 (Leigh Howard Stevens)。没错!他就是正是你所知道的那个马林巴传奇人物,史蒂文斯握槌法的创始人。下面让我们来看看他所讲述的马林巴演奏小技巧吧。当然啦,每个人的技巧肯定是最适合自己的,小伙伴们也要擦亮眼睛选择最适合自己的方法哦。

    大名鼎鼎的Stevens握槌法


    1. Keep your wrists stiff and use your forearms to hit the bars. Don’t worry about what your teacher says, this is the most basic stroke used by beginners. Only great players keep their arms level and stroke with their wrist. In fact, artists like Gordon Stout and Bob Becker take it to such a silly extreme that it looks like their forearms move up a little when the mallet goes down. Why would you want to look like one of those guys when you were playing —— people might say you were just a copy cat.
    保持腰部挺直不动,用前臂敲击音板。别管老师怎么说,这是初学者应该学习的最基本的敲法,只有演奏家才能在保持手臂水平的同时用腰部的力量敲击。事实上,有些演奏家故意将表演极端化,敲击时看起来仿佛前臂略微抬高了,其实你们大可不必去模仿这种演奏法。

    2. Use big tall strokes. Hitting correct notes is too easy if you keep the mallet heads one or two inches away from the keyboard. If you do this for a couple of years, playing keyboard percussion instruments might become so boring you might even give it up and have wasted all that practice time. Challenge yourself: never play from lower than six inches away from the bars. Use big, manly strokes. Plus, stroking the instrument from high up looks more difficult and will impress audience members who know nothing about keyboard percussion instruments (it might even impress audience members who know very little about keyboard percussion instruments...).
    用力远距离敲击。如果你的槌离音板只有2.5-5厘米左右距离,想要敲对音简直再容易不过。如果一直这么演奏的话你只会觉得敲键盘类打击乐太无聊了,甚至可能放弃马林巴,白白浪费几年辛苦的练习。为什么不挑战自己呢:从15厘米开外的距离敲击,用力敲。当然,除此之外远距离敲击看起来很难,很容易吸引外行观众的注意。

    3. Avoid Piston Strokes whenever possible. Don’t be fooled by euphemisms: Some people call them "Down Up" strokes, or "Full Strokes". Avoid these two-part strokes that start and stop at the same height and just go down to the bar and back up. Can you imagine practicing using the same simple stroke over and over? How boring! That would make music like learning tennis.
    尽量避免重复无变化的敲击。别让“Down Up”“Full Strokes”等类似说法给忽悠了,他们讲的都是重复无变化的敲击。一定要避免两次敲击以同样的高度开始和同样的高度结束,只是机械的在音板间用同样的方式来回敲。你能想象用同样简单的敲法周而复始的练习吗?多无趣啊!把演奏音乐搞的和打网球似的。

    3a. Use complicated three part motions of the mallet head every time you play a note. These strokes are easy to recognize by the fact that they start with an upward preparation before the actual stroke. They could be described, "Up Down Up". These strokes burn off extra calories and assure that you will never be a fat marimba player. They are less accurate which serves to keep you on your toes. Also, because of their three parts, they can’t be performed at a rapid rate. This can actually serve as a handy reminder: if you notice you’re using a stroke with preparation, you know you’re probably practicing. You can always switch to a piston stroke later on if you decide to work a passage up to speed.
    每次敲一个音的时候都尽量使用复杂的槌头三段式敲击法。这种敲法很容易辨认,因为在敲击之前有一个向上的准备动作,可以形容为“上下上”。这种敲法很消耗脂肪,保证你绝对不会成为马林巴演奏界的胖纸。这种敲法不会很精准,所以演奏时必须高度集中。另外,因为演奏被分成了三步,所以演奏速度也不会很快。这种方法也可以作为一种提醒:每当使用这种方法时,你可以清楚自己是在练习。当然如果想保证某一节速度精准,你也可以随时换回正常敲法。

    4. Don’t waste your valuable time learning scales and arpeggios. If you have managed to get this far without them, why bother? Sure, there are people with half your intelligence who learned them all in a couple of weeks, but what kind of social life did they have in the meantime? The most important thing is to play and enjoy music. Life is too short for exercises. Dr. Splatbar says, "Groove, don’t grind!"
    别浪费时间学音阶和琶音了。你没学音阶和琶音也敲的很好了,何必在意呢。当然,也许有些不如你聪明的人在几个星期内学会了这些,但是他们这几个星期过的怎样呢?记住,最重要的是演奏和享受音乐,生命中哪有那么多时间用来练习?要我说“槽自不必磨”。

    5. Don’t repeat. Don’t repeat. See? It only drives any mistakes you might be making into your brain . George Lawrence Stone and George Green, two of the greatest xylophone players of all time, both recommended repeating short passages over and over. Look what good it did for them —— they have both been dead since before you even knew what a mallet was! While we can’t be sure that repeating short passages and death were connected, it’s better to be safe. Dr. Splatbar advises, "Start at the beginning. Go to the end. Do something else." Avoiding repetitive practice of small sections keeps the piece fresh.
    别重复!别重复!明白吗?重复只会让大脑记住这些错误。伟大的木琴演奏家George Lawrence Stone 和George Green都建议一遍一遍的重复练习小节,结果怎么样呢?他俩没等到琴槌出世就双双离世了!当然,我也不能定论重复练习和死亡之间的关系,但是小心点总是对的。我还是建议大家,“从头开始,一直演奏到结尾。然后,随便做点其他的事情”避免重复练习某些小节,保持乐曲新鲜。

    6. When reading, keep the music stand high, so you can’t see the bars out of your peripheral vision. First of all, looking would be cheating. Second of all, since keyboard percussion instruments are the only melodic instruments that you don’t touch with your hands (aside from timpani and the Theremin), there is something tidy about not looking at them either. Plus, it’s very impressive to tell people that you neither touch nor look at your instrument, and still manage to sight read music on it. . . after a fashion.
    读谱的时候把谱架子摆高点,保证用余光也看不到音板。首先,看谱等于作弊。第二,键盘类打击乐是唯一不用手接触乐器的旋律型打击乐器,不看键盘也是一种洁癖。此外,如果告诉别人你演奏时既不碰也不看乐器还能视谱演奏的话,大家也会觉得你很牛掰!

    7. Ask your teacher frequently whether you should be striking the sharps on the ends or near the centers. Don’t waste time examining how the sound changes as you move your striking spot on the bar —— even if you did manage to figure this out and started making these decisions on your own, your teacher might feel rejected. Gordon Stout teaches that for the first year or so you should only strike the very ends of the sharps and off center of the naturals. He says having only one permissible striking spot per note helps develop a better feel for intervallic distances around the keyboard. Dr. Splatbar disagrees: "Striking on the string or halfway between the end and the string adds an impulsive, improvisational, and unfettered emotional dimension to your playing."
    不断的向老师提问升音音板敲击的位置,是敲中间还是敲一端。别浪费时间测试敲击不同点的声音变化了,即便你真的研究透彻可以自己做决定,老师也会觉得不受重视的。木琴演奏家史考特(Gordon Stout)告诉学生在开始学习的第一年升音一定要敲击音板的一端,而正常音敲击音板的中间偏下位置。他认为这样的可以帮助学生更好的感觉整个音板上的音程距离。我可不同意他的说法,“敲在绳上,或者敲在绳和音板的中间能为你的演奏增加一种激动的、即兴的、无拘无束情感维度。”
    8. Don’t plan your practice time. Practice time for many of us is limited, so enjoy it. If you took the first five minutes of every practice session and planned your time and decided what single thing you most wanted to accomplish, think how rotten you would feel if you used up your time without reaching that goal. By planning your practice you are actually setting yourself up for disappointment. If there is nothing special you need to accomplish today, there won’t be any frustration about not doing it!
    别规划练习时间。练习时间对我们来说太有限了,何不享受它呢。如果每次练习你花费最开始的5分钟时间来规划,决定利用有限的练习时间最想达到什么成果,想象下如果时间用完你却没有达成目标的时候该有多糟。规划时间其实是在规划失望。如果这天你没什么想达成的目标,那么哪有什么挫败感!

    9. Don’t use your fingers. Save them for things in life that require fine control: writing, turning stereo dials, brushing your teeth, playing the piano —— not crude things like bashing percussion instruments.
    别用手指。把手指用在更需要完美操控的地方——写字、调音、刷牙、弹钢琴等,可别用在像敲打击乐这种粗活儿上。

    10. Make sure the keyboard is at an uncomfortable height. Having the instrument at the perfect height for your anatomy fosters complacency. Discomfort fights boredom. Do the following test: Play some "air marimba" or vibes and notice what height you naturally want to strike. If your keyboard is about the same height, adjust it with magazines, blocks or a built-in height adjustment mechanism until it feels odd. Here are some of the beneficial signs of awkwardness: the mallet handles are at a 45? angle to the bars when the head contacts the instrument; the handles occasionally click against the bars; your legs are tense from flexing at the knees; your back aches. Lastly, watch for that sensation of feeling like you might be more comfortable sitting down. Not only is this a sign that the keyboard is properly adjusted too high for you, it’s also a classic symptom of needing a break. Go ahead!

    确保音板高度不适合。舒适的高度容易形成满足感,相反不舒适则不容易厌倦。试着做做下面的测试:在空气中假装演奏马林巴或者颤音琴,注意一下什么高度你想敲击。如果这个高度和你的音板高度相同,用杂志、砖头或者高度调节装置把它调到一个不合适的高度。“不合适”有以下特征:槌敲击到音板的时候槌杆和音板有45°夹角;槌杆时不时会敲到音板;演奏时曲着膝盖,腿一直处于紧张状态;背疼。最后,注意这种情况——总感觉坐下才舒服,这说明你的音板可能调的太高了。当然这也是一种很常见的症状,它告诉你:该休息了。那么休息一下吧!